Anise is used to flavor Middle Eastern arak, Colombian aguardiente, French spirits absinthe, anisette, and pastis,[7] Greek ouzo, Bulgarian mastika, German Jägermeister, Italian sambuca, Dutch Brokmöpke, Portuguese, Peruvian, and Spanish anísado, Mexican Xtabentún and Turkish rakı. These liquors are clear, but on addition of water become cloudy, a phenomenon known as the ouzo effect. It is believed to be one of the secret ingredients in the French liqueur Chartreuse. It is also used in some root beers, such as Virgil's in the United States.